Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases of the bones world wide. It is equally common like diabetes and heart diseases but is often remains silent and thus is “Under diagnosed and Under treated”. It is disease in which bones become less dense, which causes weakening of bones which in turn make them more prone to break.
In other words, it is low mineral density of the bone causing a weak structure of the bones and thus making person more prone for fractures even after trivial injuries.
What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?
“PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE”
Fractures caused due to Osteoporosis may take a long time to heal and can even lead to a permanent disability. So it makes sense to treat osteoporosis before the bones break. Adopting a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise and avoiding smoking and alcohol abuse are also considered as Prevention. With Plenty of sunlight available in tropical country like India, adequate Vitamin D can be synthesized by body itself.
Regular dietary intake of calcium rich foods and adequate exposure to sunlight are extremely important.
Certain Medicines like Bisphosphonates, Calcitonin, Teriparatide are used in treatment of Osteoporosis.
Evaluation of Osteoporosis is usually done by following methods
Medical history is taken to know Age/ sex/ Any bone pains/ any previous fractures
Physical examination is done in detail.
X-rays most likely of Hip Bones, Wrist bones and Lower spine
Bone density test by DEXA Scan (Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry): It is done to measure the mineral density of various bones like hip, wrist bones and lumbar spine. The results are interpreted by T- scores in which we compare patients bone mineral density to healthy young adults and thus decide severity of Osteoporosis.
Laboratory tests (Bone Markers)
Personal history of fracture as an adult
History of fracture in first degree relative
Caucasian or Asian race
Poor general health
Cigarette smoking and Alcohol abuse
Estrogen deficiency (Hormonal Problems)
Inadequate physical activity
Low calcium intake (lifelong)
Family history of osteoporosis
Sex hormone deficiency like Oestrogen deficiency, both in women and men
Cigarette smoking and Alcohol Overuse
Low dietary intake or absorption of calcium
Low exposure to Sunlight thus having low Vitamin D
Sedentary lifestyle, mostly indoor work, low level of exercise
If person is on certain medications: Prednisone (STEROIDS)
Some diseases which weaken bone are hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's disease and Inflammatory arthritis like Rheumatoid arthritis
Treatment for Osteoporosis
Persons have early disease do not have any complains at all. You may feel perfectly alright. Some people may feel a dull ache in the back and in neck or even in other bones of the body.
Persons whose disease becomes severe, pains may increase, especially on activity and putting weight on that bone.
Some people might come to know of the osteoporosis only after they suffer from a fracture of the hip or back. Some may also develop a Stooped back due to multiple previous vertebral spine fractures
What are Bisphosphonates?
What is Hormone replacement therapy?
Teriparatide is a newer mode of treatment of Severe Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are at high risk for fractures.
The medicine is given through daily injections taken by patient himself underneath the skin.
What causes osteoporosis?
How do I know I have Osteoporosis?
Top 10 Causes of Osteoporosis
Who is at risk to have Fractures due to osteoporosis?
These are medicines given in form of hormones especially to women after menopause. These are used less commonly now due to their high rates of side effects.
What is Parathyroid Hormone?
Bisphosphonates are the most common drugs used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis. They act by preventing breakdown of bone. They may be taken by mouth once a week (Alendronate) or even once a month (Ibandronate). Now injectable medicines are also available which need to be taken only once a year.
A person with a hip fracture almost always needs to undergo a surgery for its treatment. It may be in form of fixation of fracture with plates and screws or more likely a HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY. Patients who do not undergo surgery may have a complication rate like Non union, Mal-union, Bed sores, Clots in Veins (DVT), Pulmonary Embolism etc.
Calcitonin is a medicine that slows the breaking down of bone and relieves bone pain. It is available as a nasal spray to be taken daily.
M.B.B.S., M.S.(Orth.), DNB (Orth.), F.I.A.S. (Germany)
What is the treatment of a Hip Fracture?
Hip fracture is very common in elderly above the age of 60 years in men and in women alike. It is due to weakening of the bone of the hip due to osteoporosis, after a trivial injury causes a Fracture of the bone of hip causing Hip bone fractures.
These may be Transcapital, Transcervical or Intertrochanteric fractures of hip.
How common is Hip Fracture due to Osteoporosis?